Holocene Cultures I.

Antropark was created as part of the website of the Academy of Sciences in Brno in 2005.

Translated and modified by Vít Lang after discussions with the author,

second translator Tereza Štréglová.

© Update Antropark 2013, Author and Illustrations © Libor Balák

Contact - Libor Balák: antropark@seznam.cz




The lord of the world (the first pictorial reconstructional project of Antropark, 1998)

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This epoch subsumes the agricultural period as well as metal processing cultures

(Holocene – geological period of the last 10 000 years)


Neolithic - New Stone Age, the period of the first agriculturalists

The professional image reconstruction idea - for the City of Prague Museum (tone painting was created in cooperation with archaeologist Martin Hložek and professional staff of the Museum of Prague).

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In the Near East already in the 9th millennium B.C., in the Danube basin 7700 – 7500 years ago, then spreading into our territory. Agricultural life was centred around long post houses. A reconstructed image based on expert advice – for Prague Museum. The painting originated in consultation with archaeologist Martin Hložek and other experts from the Prague Museum.


Lengyel culture (culture with Moravian painted ceramics)

This Neolithic culture has left a distinctive archaeological signature centred in southern Moravia, but also included southwest Slovakia and adjacent parts of Austria and Hungary. Temporally belongs to late Neolithic – about 5000 B.C.

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Colourfully decorated ceramics constituted a distinct element of this culture, which subsequently spread into northern Poland, Bohemia and central Germany. Apart from pots, ceramic spoons, ladles, cubic lamplets and models of various objects and structures are known from southern Moravia. This society also possessed advanced agriculture.


Model of a small dwelling is transformed into reality

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Ceramic fragment labelled as a ship  is transformed into watercraft decoration – a monoxylon manufactured from a single piece of tree trunk

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Venus  of lengyel culture

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Neolithic Venus figurines are conceived within the abilities of the artisan. Everything is dependent on technology. There are few clues on the figurines which would provide information about the inspirational motives of the artisan. On the Venus is really too little informations about inspirational signs which goes out of actual visage of real people. The meaning of the nakedness of the figurines is also controversial; some of the figurines could have had clothes painted on them. The painting is not reconstructive transformation, but only a art sympathetic (harmonic) painting.



Venus figurines wearing skirts were also not naked

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The painting displays the technological stages of Venus figurine manufacture. Material is added – plastic. Therefore an additive procedure is possible using individual components.



Which information do the Lengyel statuettes bear?

The Middle European Lengyel statuettes are first of all of a high handcrafted quality and very decorative. The shapes and patterns are taken over from the earlier statuettes. Some of them bear specific anatomical and ethnographic elements, such as the Venuse with schematic curly hair.


This statuette has schematic straight hair.


The figurine is wearing shorts

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One of the many pieces of the Venus figurines from Neolithic era, found in South Moravia. This fraction has a preserved coloration with geometrical patterns.The figurine is uncomplete, it could also have had complet clothing. 


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This statuette has a long composite neckcloth. It is a harmonic combination of a painting and a reconstructed transformation.




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The figurine of a woman in a skirt is decorated with ceramic lugs. The statuette could also be wearing a complete dress, not only a skirt on a bare body. The art have probably been connected with mythology and religion. The early people used to decorate their clothing and probably even the entrance doors – we can say that from the ethnographical materials. The figurines were coloured, but the colours are not always preserved. 




The reconstructive transformation on this picture analyzes the skew elements in the place of the shoulder blades – it could be draped textiles. It is possible, that the original figurins were not naked, bud had schematic painted or even tacked clothing. The original figurins were decorated by paintings and some of the lines could be considered for collars or sleeves. The woman figurines with a skirt differ from other Venus figurines of the Moravian painted pottery and it is possible, that they used to be toys.  



On this statuette found in Austria we can see the preserved traces of the original painting. The interesting fact is also the hole between it´s tights. It could serve for interlacing of the waistcloth or, less probably, for fixing of the figure to the base; the fingertips would hinder the perfect fixing. The image represents the possibilities of the painting interpretation – the decorative leggings on the tights, tattooes, paintings on the skin and a necklace in the form of boar tusks. We can also see the decoration on the neck.  


Another of the important Neolithic cultures is the Bükk culture from Slovakia and Hungary, famous for it´s creative decorative cultural design. The pottery was decorated with impressive geomethrical parallel lines and coloured with black, red, white and yellow colour.


Upper Stone Age/Chalcolithic, Copper Age, followed by Neolithic

The professional image reconstruction idea - for the City of Prague Museum (tone painting was created in cooperation with archaeologist Martin Hložek and professional staff of the Museum of Prague).

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Metal appears in the archaeological record for the first time. Copper was first used in southeastern Europe, particularly in jewellery. Silver, electrum and gold were also used. Monoxylons also occur. Elaborately made chert arrowheads and stone thin plates are typical. Harnesses for plowing livestock are also known from this period.


The first evidence of metal in the Moravia

In the central Moravia, Přerov, was recently discovered a circle-shaped tomb with the skelet of a women. In the grave were charitable gifts underfoot the skeleton and a tiny coppery lamina on it´s chest, which could have served as a selvage of clothes.


Early Bronze Age

The professional image reconstruction idea - for the City of Prague Museum (tone painting was created in cooperation with archaeologist Martin Hložek and professional staff of the Museum of Prague).

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The painting evokes life inside the dwelling. In the foreground are cast molds for bronze objects. Crafts and foreign export developed in Central Europe – 2300/2000 – 750 B.C. Bronze = copper-tin alloy.


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Next period

Previous period

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The period of cultures which commonly processed metals

Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic


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(only in Czech version - use online translator) - www.rekonstrukcepraveku.wz.cz



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Suggestions for graduation  (only in Czech version - use online translator)

History of art - Palaeolithic art - www.anthropark.wz.cz/maturita.htm

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The lord of the world (the first pictorial reconstructional project of Antropark, 1998)

Antropark Home Page



Contact - Libor Balák:  antropark@seznam.cz

© Update Antropark 2013, Author and Illustrations © Libor Balák